Complete Guide to Computer learning basics and explanations

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Firgoos.com-In the Era of globalization as it is today, it is time everyone should know computer science. In everyday life activities, they are not even loose with computers. At least un

derstand the basics of computers covering computer understanding, computer functions, computer pros and cons, computer usability, computer generation, computer types, computer components, CPU, input devices, output devices, memory, motherboards, hardware, software, networks, computer operating systems, Internet,

intranet, etc.
What is computer understanding? A computer is a media information used to process electronic data, receive and store input data, process input data, and generate output in the necessary format. The benefi

ts and usability of the computer in daily life is very diverse according to the field and function. By default, computer roles have 5 functions:

Komputer1 F
unction-retrieves data as in
put. 2-Saves the data/instruction in its memory and uses it as needed
. 3-Process the data and turn it into useful informatio
n. 4-Generate output.
5-Control all the above four steps.

Advantages of
computing/excess computers are as follow.

 1. Has high speed

  • Computers are very fast devices.
  • Computers are capable of calculating very large amounts of data.
  • The computer has a velocity unit in microseconds, nanoseconds, and even pikoseconds.
  • Computers can do millions of calculations in a few seconds compared to men who will spend months doing the same task.

 2. Precise and accurate

  • Besides very fast, the computer is also very accurate.
  • The calculation is 100% error free.
  • The computer can do all the work with 100% accuracy if the input is correct.

 3. Memory/Storage Capabilities

  • Memory is a very important computer characteristic.
  • The computer has a much greater storage capacity than humans.
  • The computer can store large amounts of data.
  • The computer can store all kinds of data such as images, videos, text, audio, etc.

 4. Perseverance

  • Unlike humans, computers are free of monotonous, exhausted, and lack of concentration.
  • Computers can work continuously without any mistakes and boredom.
  • Computers can perform repetitive tasks with the same speed and accuracy.

 5. Versatile

  • Computers are very versatile machines.
  • Computers are very versatile in doing the work to do.
  • This machine can be used to solve problems related to various fields.

 6. Reliable

  • Computer is a machine that can be handed.
  • Modern electronic components have a long lifespan.
  • Computers are designed for easy maintenance.

 7. Automation

  • The computer is an automatic machine.
  • Automation is the ability to perform assigned tasks automatically. After the computer receives the program that is stored in the computer's memory, the program and instructions can control the implementation of the program without human interaction.

 8. Cost savings

  • The use of computers for data processing in an organization leads to a reduction in paper work and generating accelerated processes.
  • Since the data in electronic files can be retrieved when and when needed, maintenance problems of a large number of paper files will be reduced.
  • Despite the initial investment to put up a high computer, this substantially reduces the cost of each transaction.

Disadvantages/Disadvantages of Comp
uterthe Following are some disadvantages/disadvantages of computers.

 1. No IQ

  • Computers are machines that do not have the intelligence to perform any task.
  • Each instruction should be given to the computer.
  • The computer cannot make its own decision.

 2. Dependency

  • The computer can function according to user instruction, so it depends entirely on the human.

 3. Environment must match

  • The operating environment of the computer must be suitable free of dust and water splashes.

 4. No feeling

  • The computer has no feeling or emotion.
  • Computers cannot make judgments based on feelings, taste, experience, and knowledge unlike humans.

Computer Usability 
The usefulness of computers in everyday life is very diverse according to their respective fields that include.
1. Business Computer Usability
The computer has a high speed of calculation, persistence, accuracy, reliability, or flexibility that makes it an integrated part of all business organizations.
Computer use in the field of business include the following:
  • Payroll calculation
  • Budgeting
  • Sales Analysis
  • Financial forecasting
  • Manage Employee databases
  • Stock maintenance, etc.
2. Banking computer Usability
In the banking world almost completely activity depends on the computer. Computer use in banking is as follows:
  • Online accounting facility, which includes checking current balances, depositing and overdoing, checking interest fees, stocks, and trustee records.
  • The fully automated ATM machine makes it easier for customers to deal with banks.
Computer use in the field of insurance
The computer is indispensable to the insurance company to always update all records. Many insurance companies, financial houses, and stockbrokers are using computers to address the various problems faced by the company.
The insurance company maintains database of all clients with information indicating-
  • Procedures for continuing the policy
  • Policy Start date
  • Next due installment of a policy
  • Maturity Date
  • Flower Maturity
  • Survival Benefits
  • Bonus
3. Computer use in Education
In the educational world, computers have many roles to provide various educational system facilities.
  • The computer provides a tool in the educational system known as CBE (Computer Based Education).
  • CBE involves the control, delivery, and evaluation of learning.
  • Computer education quickly enhances the graph of the number of computer students.
  • There are a number of methods in which educational institutions can use computers to educate students.
  • Computers are used to prepare databases of student assessments and analyze basic developments.
4. Marketing Computer Usability
In the field of marketing, computer usability includes:
  • Advertising – with computers, advertising professionals make art and images, write and revise copies, and print and distribute advertisements with the intention of selling more products.
  • Home Shopping-Home Shopping has been made possible through the use of a computerized catalogue that provides access to product information and allows the entry of orders directly to be filled by customers.
5. Computer Usability in Health
Computers have become an important part of hospitals, laboratories, and pharmacies. They are used in hospitals to keep patient records and medicines. It is also used to scan and diagnose various diseases. ECG, EEG, ultrasound and CT scans, etc. Also done by computerized machine.
The following are some of the main areas of health care where the computer is used.
  • Diagnostic system-The computer is used to collect data and identify the cause of the disease.
  • Laboratory Diagnostic Systems – all tests can be performed and reports are prepared by the computer.
  • Patient Monitoring System-this is used to examine patient signs for abnormalities such as Cardiac Arrest, ECG, etc.
  • Pharmaceutical Information Systems – drug label clogging, expiration dates, dangerous side effects, also require computer assistance to be more accurate.
  • Surgery-the surgical process in the current health screening has used the computer to accelerate the process and thoroughness.
6. Computer use in design and engineering
Computers are widely used for engineering purposes.
One of the main areas is CAD (Computer Aided Design) which provides creation and modification of images. Some fields are as follows:
  • Structural engineering-requires analysis of voltages and strain for the design of ships, buildings, budgets, airplanes, etc.
  • Industrial Engineering-the computer handles the design, implementation, and enhancement of the integrated human system, materials, and equipment.
  • Architectural Engineering-the computer assists in urban planning, designing buildings, determining various buildings on the site using 2D and 3D drawings.
7. Military Computing uses
Computers are mostly used for defense. Modern tanks, missiles, weapons, etc. The military also uses a computerized control system. Computer use in the military area are as follows:
  • Missile control
  • Military communications
  • Military operations and planning
  • Smart weapons
8. Computer utilities in the field of communication
Communication is a way of conveying a message, idea, image, or voice received and clearly and correctly understood by the person in question. Some key areas in the communication category are as follows:
  • Electronic mail
  • Chat
  • Usenet
  • Ftp
  • Telnet
  • Video Conferencing
9. Computer usability in the field of government
Computers play an important role in government services including the following:
  • Budget
  • Sales Tax Department
  • Income Tax Department
  • Male/female ratio calculation
  • Computerised Selector list
  • Computerized PAN Card
  • Weather forecast
The generation
of computing in computer terminology is a change in technology used by computers. Initially, the term computer generation was used to distinguish various hardware technologies. But at this time, the computer generation includes hardware and software, which together can form the entire computer system. T

here are five computer generations known to date. Each generation has been discussed in detail along with the time period and its characteristics. Here is an explanation of each generation of computers that you need to know, as well as the date estimates of each of the Following compu

ter generations are the five main generations of computers that you need to know.
1. First ge
neration: 1946-1959. Computer-based vacuum tubes.

2. Second gener
ation Generaperiode: 1959-1965. Transistor-based.

3. Third ge
neration: 1965-1971. Integrated circuit based.

4. Fourth gene
ration Period: 1971-1980. VLSI. 5 microprocessor-base

d. Generations o
f the fifth generation: 1980-onward. ULSI microprocessor based.

Computerized
type Based on computer computing speed and power is classified into several types namely:

1. PC (personal comp
uter) PC is a single-user computer system that has a fairly powerful microprocessor. A PC

can be defined as a relatively inexpensive small computer designed for individual users. PC is based on microprocessor technology that allows manufacturers to put the entire CPU on a single chip. Businesses use personal computers for word processing, accounting, desktop publishing, and for running spreadsheet and database management applications. At home, the most popular use for personal computers is to play games and surf the Internet. Alt

hough personal computers are designed as single-user systems, these systems are usually connected together to form networks. In terms of strength, now the Macintosh models and top-tier PCS offer the same computing power and graphics capabilities as lower-class workstations by Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, and Dell.

2. Workstation
workstation is a single-user computer system, similar to a personal computer but has a stronger microprocessor. Workstation

is a computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other types of applications that require a moderate amount of computing power and relatively high quality graphics capabilities. Workstat

ions are generally equipped with high-resolution graphics screens, large amounts of RAM, built-in network support, and graphical user interfaces. Most workstations also have mass storage devices such as disk drives, but special types of workstations, called workstations without disks, are present without a disk drive. Com

mon operating systems for workstations are UNIX and Windows NT. Like PCS, workstations are also single-user computers such as PCS but are usually connected together to form a local area network, although they can also be used as stand-alone systems.

3. Computer Mini
Computer Mini is a multi-user computer system, which is able to support up to 250-an users simultaneously.

4. Mainfram
e is a multi-user computer system, capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously. The software technology differs from the mini compu

ter. Mainframe is very large and is an expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds or even thousands of users simultaneously. Mainframe can run multiple programs and execute programs simultaneously.

5. Super Computer
Super computer is a very fast computer, which can run hundreds of millions of instructions per second

. Supercomputer is one of the fastest computers nowadays. Supercomputers are very expensive and are used for special applications requiring a huge amount of mathematical calculations (figures). For e

xample, weather forecasts, scientific simulations, graphs (animations), fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and geologic data analysis (e.g. in petrochemical searc

h). Computer comp
onents ALL Types of computers follow the same basic logical structure and perform the following five basic operations to convert raw input data into useful information for its users.
1. Take Input
Take inputs is the process of inserting data and instruction into a computer system.
2. Store data
Store data is the process of storing data and instruction so that it is available for processing as needed.
3. Processing Data
Processing Data is the process of performing arithmetic, and the logical operation of the data to convert it into useful information.
4. Output Information
Output Information is the process of generating information or results that are beneficial to users, such as print reports or visual views.
5. Control the workflow
directs how and sequences of how all of the above operations can be done.

InputUnit
input Unit consists of the device used to insert the data into the computer. The input Unit becomes a liaison between users and computers. Input devices have a role to translate information into data forms that computer systems can understand. CPU (Ce

ntral Processing Unit) CPU
is considered as computer brain. The CPU performs all kinds of data processing operations. It stores data, results, and instructions (Programs). It controls the operation of all parts of the comp
uter. The CPU consists of three important components:

  • ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
  • Memory Unit
  • Control Unit

OutputUni
t output Unit is the type of device used to generate information from the computer. The output Unit is a computer connecting media with users. Output devices have roles to translate the output of a computer in a form of data that can be understood by users.

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